Voda kot hidravlična tekočina v pogonsko-krmilni hidravliki - 1. del

F. Majdič, J. Pezdirnik, M. Kalin

Ventil 12 (2006) 178–184.

Abstract

Zaradi manjših zalog in naraščajočih cen naftnih derivatov ter povečanega onesnaževanja okolja človestvo isče in vedno bolj uporablja alternativne vire kot nadomestek fosilnih surovin. Mineralno olje je danes zaradi visoke viskoznosti in odličnih mazalnih lastnosti najpogosteje uporabljena hidravlična tekočina, hkrati pa je sestavljena iz pretezno fosilnih surovin z vsemi zgoraj omenjenimi slabostmi. Na področju hidravlične tekočine se razvijata dve ločeni alternativi za mineralno hidravlično olje. Prva je razvoj in uvajanje biološko razgradljivega rastlinskega hidravličnega olja. To smer je pretezno ubralo nemško tržisče. Druga alternativa za zamenjavo mineralnega olja pa je "čista" voda. Na tem področju so najbolj aktivni v skandinavskih drzavah. Ker je uporaba vode v hidravliki v Sloveniji dokaj nepoznano področje, želimo v dveh prispevkih predstaviti možnost uporabe vode kot hidravlične tekočine v pogonsko-krmilni hidravliki (PKH). V tem delu se bomo osredotočili na razlike v fizikalnih lastnostih med vodo in najbolj uporabljano hidravlično tekočino doslej - mineralnim hidravličnim oljem. Preden se lotimo razvoja oziroma uporabe sestavin vodne pogonsko-krmilne hidravlike, je seveda potrebno dodobra poznati lastnosti vode, ki so bistveno drugačne od mineralnega olja in vplivajo na delovanje in lastnosti hidravličnih sestavin. V tem članku predstavljamo tudi nekatere izmed najpomembnejsih prednosti in slabosti vodne hidravlike.

Due to reduction of oil stores underground, its price and increasing negative environmental impact, companies are searching for new, and is widening the useof, alternative sources as substitutes for fossil raw material. Nowadays mineral oil is the most widely used hydraulic fluid due to its high viscosity and excellent lubricating properties, yet it is composed mostly of fossil raw material with all of the aforementioned disadvantages. In the field of hydraulic fluids two different alternatives for mineral oil are most importantand in the developmental process. The first one is the development and introduction of bio-degradable vegetable hydraulic oil. The German market is focusing on this research direction. The other substitute for mineral oil is tap water. Scandinavian countries are the most active on this field. As theuse of water in power-control hydraulics is a mostly unknown field, we wantto present the general possibilities of using water as hydraulic fluid, and emphasising its use in power-control hydraulics. This first part is focused on the differences in physical properties between water and mineral oil as the most used hydraulic fluids until recently. Before beginning the development and use of the components of tap water power-control hydraulics itis necessary to understand the properties of waterč they are essentially different from those of mineral oil and have a great influence on the functionand properties of hydraulic components. In this paper some of the mostimportant advantages and disadvantages of tap water hydraulics are presented.

Keywords: voda, hidravlično olje, pogonsko-krmilna hidravlika, lastnosti olja, fizikalne lastnosti, hydraulic fluids, water, power-control hydraulics, physical properties

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